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  • December 1, 2021


A capacitor is a component that has the ability or "capacity" to store energy in the form of an electrical charge that produces a potential difference (Static Voltage) across its plates, much like a small rechargeable battery would. This gives the capacitor the ability to produce a potential difference (Static Voltage). Dielectric refers to the insulating material used to separate the capacitor's plates from one another.

The effect of a capacitor is known as capacitance. Although a certain amount of capacitance is included in every pair of conductors, capacitors are intentionally made for the sole purpose of storing electrical energy.

Electronic gadgets, electrical power systems, and telecommunications equipment are just a few examples of the many different applications that make use of capacitors. Electronic gadgets make use of capacitors in order to filter out undesired signals and store energy respectively.

Types of Capacitors

Dielectric Capacitors

When it comes to tuning transmitters, receivers, and transistor radios, dielectric capacitors are typically of the variable kind. This is because a continual variation in capacitance is required for this process. Variable dielectric capacitors are multi-plate air-spaced types that feature a set of fixed plates (called stator vanes) and a set of moveable plates (called rotor vanes) that move in between the fixed plates. The movable plates are separated from the fixed plates by air gaps.

The value of the overall capacitance is determined by the position of the moving plates in relation to the plates that are fixed. When the two different sets of plates are completely woven together, the capacitance is often at its highest point. High voltage type tuning capacitors include air-gaps or spacings between the plates that are relatively big. The breakdown voltages of these capacitors can reach many thousands of volts.

Film Capacitors

The film capacitor is the type of capacitor that is most readily available to the general public. Film capacitors are part of a vast family of capacitors, with the primary distinction between them being the dielectric properties they exhibit. In this category are materials such as polyester (also known as Mylar), polystyrene, polypropylene, polycarbonate, metalized paper, Teflon, and others. The capacitance ranges accessible for film capacitors can be as low as 5pF or as high as 100uF, depending on the actual type of capacitor and the voltage rating of the capacitor.

Ceramic Types Capacitors

To construct a ceramic capacitor, first two sides of a small porcelain or ceramic disc are coated with silver, and then the discs are stacked one on top of the other to form the capacitor. Ceramic capacitors are also sometimes referred to as disc capacitors. When very low capacitance values are required, a single ceramic disc of between 3 and 6 millimeters in thickness is utilized. Ceramic capacitors have a high dielectric constant (High-K) and are readily available. Because of this, it is possible to get reasonably high capacitances in a compact physical size using ceramic capacitors.

They are utilized as de-coupling or by-pass capacitors due to their substantial non-linear fluctuations in capacitance against temperature and because they are non-polarized. Although ceramic capacitors come in a variety of values, the majority of them have low voltage ratings and can only handle a few volts.

Electrolytic Types

Whenever a large amount of capacitance is needed, electrolytic capacitors are typically the kind of choice. The use of a semi-liquid electrolyte solution in the form of a jelly or paste as the second electrode replaces the use of a very thin metallic film layer in this case (usually the cathode).

The oxide dielectric film is less than 10 microns thick and is produced electrochemically during manufacture. As the distance between the plates is tiny, capacitors with a high capacitance value for a relatively small physical dimension are feasible thanks to the insulating layer's thinness.


What is the function of Capacitors?

An electrical component known as a capacitor stores energy in the form of an electrostatic field. Capacitors can range in size from very small to very large. It is made up of two conductors, which are most commonly metal plates, and an insulating substance in between them (called a dielectric). When a voltage is applied to the capacitor, the electric field that is created between the plates of the capacitor will store the energy. The quantity of energy that may be stored in a capacitor is directly proportional to the voltage that is being applied to it as well as its capacitance.

What are the basic parts of Capacitors?

A capacitor is made up of two conducting plates on the outside, a layer of insulating material on the inside, and terminals on the outside that connect the two plates to the rest of the circuit. These metal plates can be assembled in a parallel configuration by placing them close together, or in a series configuration by placing them side by side.

What are Capacitors used for?

Capacitors are used in many different things that we use in our daily lives. Examples of these items are AC Motor, Air Compressor, Refrigerator, Washing Machine, Electric Fans, Lights, Audio Equipment, and many others.

Visit the products page of Chip 1 Exchange to find brands and manufacturers that offer Capacitors and other electronic components. Chip 1 Exchange also offers technical support, design consultation and assistance to our clients with the help of our Engineers equipped with their knowledge and services about the latest electronic and electrical designs.



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